Location: N54° 53` 49.9", E23° 53` 9.99"
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Kaunas is the second largest city in the central part of Lithuania, in the confluence of the rivers Nemunas and Neris. The city is an important industrial, transport, scientific and cultural center, the Provisional Capital. Kaunas has its City Municipality, Kaunas District, the Archdiocese center.
The settlement on the confluence of the rivers of Neris and Nemunas was founded in the tenth century at the latest. In the territory of the confluence settlement a stone Kaunas Castle was built in the middle of the fourteenth century. In the Chronicle of Crusader Herold Wigand Marburg Kaunas settlement was first mentioned in 1361. In 1408 the city was granted Magdeburg rights and a Hanseatic firm was established and a robust expansion of trade and crafts developed. At the beginning of the 15th century it was a German merchant city, and at the end of the 16th century Kaunas became one of the best developed cities in the Grand Duchy.
1. Kaunas Castle is the oldest stone castle in Lithuania, built in the fourteenth century to fend off the attacks of the crusaders. A settlement grew around this Gothic defensive structure which grew into the current city later on. For the first time the castle was mentioned in written sources in 1361 when it was destroyed by the crusaders. In the sixteenth century the castle had a prison in which the souls of the prisoners which cannot find peace still haunt in the castle at nights. At present Kaunas city museum department works in the castle and cultural events are held annually around it. Next to the castle Kaunas Confluence Park is located, known as the heart of Kaunas. The cost of the entrance ticket to Kaunas Castle Museum is 3 Eur.
2. St. George's Church, Bernardine ensemble. At the beginning of the sixteenth century Bernardine monastery complex except the castle was the largest complex of brick buildings in Kaunas. And nowadays conservationists believe that Kaunas Bernardine Monastery and St. George Martyr Church building complex, is perhaps the most valuable buildings of the Provisional Capital which saves a lot of authentic things.
3. The Town Hall and its Square. The Town Hall is the oldest and the main Kaunas Old Town Square of the nineteenth century. In the fifteenth century in Kaunas Town Hall Square, there were 9 wax melting furnaces. One of them has been displayed since 2002. In the Middle Ages in the Town Hall Square markets, fairs, celebrations and other events were held. The dominant of the Town Hall Square is Kaunas Town Hall. Kaunas Town Hall Square ensemble includes: Kaunas Town Hall; Kaunas St. Francis Xavier (Jesuit) Church (1720) with the monastery buildings (1768.); Zabiela house (XVI century.); Sirutis Palace (XVIII century.) Horse Post Station buildings (the beginning of XIX c., Architect J. Poussier), now - Communications History Museum; Seminary Rector's Palace; Kaunas Blessed. Trinity (Seminary) Church of the Bernardine monastery. Kaunas Cathedral Basilica.
4. Blessed Virgin Mary (Vytautas Magnus) church is the oldest early Gothic monument in Kaunas which has a cross-shaped plan. Neither The Grand Duchy nor the neighboring countries’ territory has any analogues of this kind of the building composition. It stands in the Old Town, on the right bank of the Nemunas, 1 km above the confluence of the Nemunas and Neris, near Vytautas the Great Bridge.